July goes down as hottest ever in United States
The United States, as a whole, baked like no other July this year, setting a national record hottest July on record.
Of course, Seattle and Western Washington bucked the national trend again, being one of the few places that didn't contribute to the record.
Overall, Seattle's July was a touch cooler than normal -- about 2.3 degrees below normal to be exact. But if you factor in the entire state - it was considerably warmer in Eastern Washington -- Washington came in with a July temperature rating of 78, making it its 30th hottest July out of 118 years. (The way NOAA rates the months is from 1 to number-of-years-on-record -- 118 as of 2012 -- with the hottest month being 118 and the coldest July as 1. The median would be 59.)
For this past July, 34 of the lower 48 states rated 110 or greater on this ranking with Virginia setting its hottest July on record and 12 other states in their top 3. On the other hand, only four states were lower than 85: California (48) -- the only state under the median, Louisiana (64), Arizona (68) and Washington (78).
The records broken this month were set back during the infamous Dust Bowl years of the mid 30s.
Oklahoma City was one of the spots in the heart of the Dust Bowl, was really feeling the heat this year, finishing up July with 14 consecutive days above 100. That streak really took off into August where they had days of 112, 112, and 113, followed by 109 from Aug. 1-4. Oklahoma City did drop to 99 on Aug. 5 to break the 100+ streak, but now are back well into the 100s again.
113 degrees is Oklahoma City's all-time record high and they tied it one day and were a degree short the other two. To put that in perspective, that would be akin to Seattle having a historical heat stretch of 102, 102, 103 and then 99.
Chicago too, had a historical stretch of heat again in July -- with three days above 100 -- 102, 103 and 103. The three days 100+ was the first time since 1947 they've been that high, and each day narrowly missed their all-time record high of 105.
While two cities are just an example and way too small a sample size individually, the national records are not. Is it a sign of global warming? Associated Press Science Writer Seth Borenstein tackles the topic:
WASHINGTON (AP) - This probably comes as no surprise: Federal scientists say July was the hottest month ever recorded in the Lower 48 states, breaking a record set during the Dust Bowl of the 1930s.
And even less a surprise: The U.S. this year keeps setting records for weather extremes, based on the precise calculations that include drought, heavy rainfall, unusual temperatures, and storms.
The average temperature last month was 77.6 degrees. That breaks the old record from July 1936 by 0.2 degree, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Records go back to 1895.
"It's a pretty significant increase over the last record," said climate scientist Jake Crouch of NOAA's National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, N.C. In the past, skeptics of global warming have pointed to the Dust Bowl to argue that recent heat isn't unprecedented. But Crouch said this shows that the current year "is out and beyond those Dust Bowl years. We're rivaling and beating them consistently from month to month."
Three of the nation's five hottest months on record have been recent Julys: This year, 2011 and 2006. Julys in 1936 and 1934 round out the top five.
Last month also was 3.3 degrees warmer than the 20th century average for July.
Thirty-two states had months that were among their 10 warmest Julys, but only one, Virginia, had the hottest July on record. Crouch said that's a bit unusual, but that it shows the breadth of the heat and associated drought.
For example in 2011, the heat seemed to be centered mostly in Oklahoma and Texas. But this summer "the epicenters of the heat kind of migrated around. It kind of got everybody in the action this month," Crouch said.
The first seven months of 2012 were the warmest on record for the nation. And August 2011 through July this year was the warmest 12-month period on record, just beating out the July 2011-June 2012 time period.
But it's not just the heat that's noteworthy. NOAA has a measurement called the U.S. Climate Extreme Index which dates to 1900 and follows several indicators of unusually high and low temperatures, severe drought, downpours, and tropical storms and hurricanes. NOAA calculates the index as a percentage, which mostly reflects how much of the nation experience extremes. In July, the index was 37 percent, a record that beat the old mark for July last year. The average is 20 percent.
For the first seven months of the year, the extreme index was 46 percent, beating the old record from 1934. This year's extreme index was heavily driven by high temperatures both day and night, which is unusual, Crouch said.
"This would not have happened in the absence of human-caused climate change," said Pennsylvania State University climate scientist Michael Mann.
Crouch and Kevin Trenberth, climate analysis chief of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, said what's happening is a double whammy of weather and climate change. They point to long-term higher night temperatures from global warming and the short-term effect of localized heat and drought that spike daytime temperatures.
Drought is a major player because in the summer "if it is wet, it tends to be cool, while if it is dry, it tends to be hot," Trenberth said.
So the record in July isn't such a big deal, Trenberth said. "But the fact that the first seven months of the year are the hottest on record is much more impressive from a climate standpoint, and highlights the fact that there is more than just natural variability playing a role: Global warming from human activities has reared its head in a way that can only be a major warning for the future."
Here are some more numbers unlikely to provide cold comfort. The coolest July on record was in 1915. The coldest month in U.S. history was January 1979 with an average temperature of 22.6 degrees.