The touted rookie came through with an infield hit toward third after beginning the night 0 for 5 with four strikeouts in a game started by Seattle ace Felix Hernandez.
Jose Altuve singled off Charlie Furbush (0-3) to open the 11th and Dexter Fowler reached on a bunt single. A sacrifice bunt by Carlos Corporan came next, and Altuve beat the throw to third to load the bases for Springer.
Anthony Bass (1-0) pitched two scoreless innings for the win. Marc Krauss had two hits and drove in two runs for Houston.
Mike Zunino hit a two-run homer and Kyle Seager added a pair of RBIs for Seattle, which had a three-game winning streak snapped.
Houston had trouble taking advantage of chances throughout the game and was 3 for 17 with runners in scoring position.
Robinson Cano was initially ruled safe on a grounder with two outs in the 10th, but the play was challenged and overturned on replay to end the inning.
The Astros tied it at 4 in the eighth when Alex Presley scored on a chopper by Jonathan Villar.
Hernandez allowed five hits and three runs two earned with six strikeouts in five innings.
Houston starter Brad Peacock gave up six hits and four runs in six innings. He struck out six and walked three.
Michael Saunders started the sixth with a bunt single and Cano drew a one-out walk before Corey Hart singled to load the bases. Seager's two-run double gave Seattle a 4-3 lead.
Springer had a chance to catch the ball in right field, but it bounced off his glove as he crashed into the fence near the bullpen. He was splayed on the ground as Fowler came over to retrieve the ball.
Seager singled with none out in the fifth before Zunino connected on his homer to the Crawford Boxes in left field to tie it at 2 with two outs.
Hernandez plunked Jason Castro in the fifth before Krauss' RBI single, on a ball that bounced right in front of the wall in right field, put Houston back on top 3-2. Krauss was thrown out trying to stretch the hit into a double.
Altuve had a bunt single to start the third before an infield single by Fowler. The Astros went up 1-0 when Castro reached on an error by center fielder Abraham Almonte.
Krauss' RBI single sent Fowler home to push the lead to 2-0.
NOTES: Seattle RHP Hisashi Iwakuma (finger) is scheduled to come off the disabled list and make his season debut against left-hander Dallas Keuchel when the series continues Saturday. Mariners manager Lloyd McClendon said Iwakuma will likely by limited to about 100 pitches. ... McClendon said he expects RHP Taijuan Walker (shoulder) and LHP James Paxton (back) to start throwing bullpens sometime in the next week. ... Houston signed left-handed reliever Tony Sipp. The Astros also optioned RHP Paul Clemens to Triple-A and transferred RHP Jesse Crain to the 60-day disabled list.